Whole Wheat Flour

What is whole wheat flour?
Whole wheat flour is the most natural and healthy product that can be obtained from the grinding of wheat. In fact, the first result of the grinding of wheat is always whole wheat flour and only after sifting it, flours type 2, 1, 0 and 00 can be realized. Whole wheat flour, which is a derivate of the whole grain, preserves the bran, germ and endosperm of the grain and it is therefore rich of nutrients. Even Ancient Roman soldiers would only eat the panis militaris, which was whole wheat bread, as it is rich of fibers and vitamins. Centioni flours are whole wheat flours mainly whole wheat or poorly processed, because we want to make available to our clients and consumers a product that is not only absolutely natural but also appropriate for the well-being, through its taste and healthy composition.


Wheat grain composition
The bran is the multi-layered outer skin of the kernel that helps to protect the other two parts of the kernel from sunlight, pests, water, and disease. It contains fibers, important antioxidants, iron, zinc, copper, magnesium, B vitamins, and phytonutrients. The germ is the embryo which, if fertilized by pollen, will sprout into a new plant. It contains B vitamins, vitamin E, antioxidants, phytonutrients, and unsaturated fats. The endosperm is the germ's food supply which, if the grains were allowed to grow would provide essential energy to the young plant. As the largest portion of the kernel, the endosperm contains starchy carbohydrates, proteins, and small amounts of vitamins and minerals.


italian soft whole organic wheat flour

General benefits
italian soft whole organic wheat flour Whole grain is rich in fiber, and although the benefits of fiber for the intestines and the heart health have been known for some time, it seems that whole grain provides protection over and above that provided by the fiber. Studies show that in women, the health effects of whole grain on heart diseases go beyond those linked to the fiber, whereas in men, the bran or fiber component of whole grains provides a significant portion of the protection.

The health advantages of whole grains are largely associated with consuming the entire whole-grain “package,” which includes vitamins (B vitamins, vitamin E), minerals (iron, magnesium, zinc, potassium, selenium), essential fatty acids, phytochemicals (physiologically active components of plants that have functional health benefits) and other bioactive food components. Most of the health-promoting substances are found in the germ and bran of a grain kernel and include resistant starch, oligosaccharides, inulin, lignans, phytosterols, phytic acid, tannins, lipids, and antioxidants, such as phenolic acids and flavonoids. It is believed that these nutrients and other compounds, when consumed together, have an additive and synergistic effect on health.


Specific benefits
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Research demonstrates an association between consuming whole grain as part of a low-fat diet and a reduced risk of heart disease. Studies have consistently found that individuals taking three or more servings of whole grain foods per day have a 20 to 30 percent lower risk of cardiovascular events compared to individuals with lower intakes of whole grain. This level of protection is not seen with refined grains and is even greater than that seen with fruit and vegetables.
  Components of some whole grains, including soluble fiber, beta-glucan, alpha-tocotrienol, and the arginine-lysine ratio, are believed to play a role in lowering blood cholesterol. Whole grains may decrease risk of heart disease through their antioxidant content. Oxidative stress and inflammation are predominant pathological factors for several major diseases and it has been suggested that the variety of phytochemicals found in whole grains may directly or indirectly inhibit oxidative stress and inflammation. Other bioactive components are believed to play a role in vascular reactivity, clotting, and insulin sensitivity. Studies have not isolated the exact mechanisms for the positive effect of whole grain on cardiovascular health and it is likely that (as for fruit and vegetables) the whole grain ‘package’ is more protective than its individual components.
Whole grains appear to be associated, in a number of studies, with a reduced risk of several gastrointestinal cancers. A review of 40 studies on gastrointestinal cancers found a 21 to 43 percent lower cancer risk with high intake of whole grains compared to low intakes.8 In recent large prospective cohort studies, whole grain consumption was associated with a modest reduced risk of colorectal cancer. The studies examining the risk of hormone-dependent cancers are limited.
Several mechanisms have been proposed for this action. Fibers and certain starches found in whole grains ferment in the colon to help reduce transit time and improve gastrointestinal health. Whole grain also contains antioxidants that may help protect against oxidative damage, which may play a role in cancer development.
Components of whole grain, including fiber, resistant starch, and oligosaccharides play roles in supporting gastrointestinal health. Studies suggest that dietary fiber from whole grain increases stool weight by absorbing water and the partial fermentation of fiber and oligosaccharides, which increases the amount of beneficial bacteria in stool. Resistant starch is not digested and absorbed like ordinary starch, which means it passes into the large intestine and behaves in a similar way to fiber. This larger and softer mass of residue speeds the movement of the bowel contents towards excretion. The effect of promoting normal intestinal regularity makes whole grain products integral components of diet plans to help alleviate constipation and decrease the risk of developing diverticulosis and diverticulitis.
Major epidemiological studies show a reduced risk of 20 to 30 percent for type 2 diabetes associated with higher intakes of whole grain or cereal fiber. Evidence from observational studies and clinical trials suggests improved blood glucose control in people with diabetes and, in non-diabetic individuals, whole grains may lower fasting insulin levels and decrease insulin resistance. Whole grain intake is inversely associated with the risk of type 2 diabetes, and this association is stronger for the bran than for the germ. Findings from prospective cohort studies consistently support increasing whole grain consumption for the prevention of type 2 diabetes. Components of whole grain, including magnesium, fiber, vitamin E, phytic acids, lectins, and phenolic compounds, are believed to contribute to risk reduction of type 2 diabetes as well as lowering blood glucose and blood insulin levels. In studies that examined the source of fiber, researchers found that fiber from whole grain, but not from fruit or vegetable sources, appears to exert the protective effect in reducing risk for developing type 2 diabetes.
Emerging evidence suggests that whole grain intake may contribute to achieving and maintaining a healthy weight. Studies show that people who include whole grain as part of a healthful diet are less likely to gain weight over time. Eating a diet high in whole grains is associated with lower body mass index and weight, smaller waist circumference, and reduced risk of being overweight.  People who consume more whole grains are likely to have healthier lifestyles. The mechanisms by which whole grain may support weight management include enhanced and extended satiation (regulation of energy intake per eating occasion to lower daily energy intake), and prolonged gastric emptying to delay the return of hunger.


How to eat more whole grains
To reap the many health benefits of whole grains it is advisable to eat 3 portions a day. It is easy to include whole grain in the diet simply by swapping some portions of refined starchy staples for whole grain varieties. Scientific studies support the recommendation of at least 48 g of whole grain daily. Increasing the consumption of whole grain should be done progressively to let the body adapt to higher fiber content.


A portion of whole grains is equal to:
120g cooked brown rice or other cooked grain
120g cooked 100% whole-grain pasta
120g cooked hot cereal, such as oatmeal
30g uncooked whole-grain pasta, brown rice or other grain
1 slice 100% whole-grain bread
1 very small (30g) 100% whole-grain muffin
120g 100% whole-grain ready-to-eat cereal

Stone ground flour

If you arrived on this page you probably have googled: stone ground flour or oragnic stone ground flour , or italian stone ground flour
The stone ground flour Centioni coming from the careful selection of the Centioni family and of the best Italian millers is unmatched for making pizza, desserts, bread and home-made pasta, but also for the high nutritional values that are not polished or corrupted by any kind of excipient or preservative. Only the best stone ground flour, cultivated in the most natural way possible, to give you a healthy and tasty product. An exclusive flour for those who care about their health and the natural goodness. A flour for those who will not give away the important nutrients while having the security of their uncontaminated origin. The flour of wellness, well-being and self-care. The flour of ancient values and flavors.

Stone ground flour

Every package of stone ground flour Centioni is unique. In fact, each of the millers with which we collaborate harvests wheat according to natural flows. And depending on the field, on the season and on the secrets of the millers, each and every package represents a unique piece. Nonetheless, thanks to the supervision of the Centioni family, all nutrients are always present in each package of flour we prepare. Moreover, every package is manually packaged and sewed.